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Map and touristic Guide of town fortress PALMANOVA in Friuli region

(Province of Udine – Udine, Tricesimo, Palmanova and countryside)

  Palmanova was born from nothing in the fields between Udine and the Adriatic Sea in the day 7 October 1593, when five ‘Provveditori’ sent by the Senate of the ‘Serenissima Repubblica’ of Venice, with some engineers, workers and soldiers, chose the right place and marked the perimeter of the future fortress, wanted against the Turkish and Habsburg Empires.
  It took almost 60 years to complete the work (thought also as an ideal town for 2000 inhabitants) but it was so well planned and built that today, after 400 years, the three baileys (two built by Venice and one added by Napoleon in 1800) never conquered, are almost intact and the town is happily inhabited by very active population in economy and culture.
  Palmanova is an unique specimen in the world of fortress-town with the shape of star, the first in the history, the more complex and the largest. (see at the foot of the page)

Palmanova Town
 
 The town maintains almost completely (some modern buildings overhang the walls) the original physiognomy, beginning from the strictly geometrical subdivision in quarters and from the large circular square recently restored.
  Several are the buildings of value:
- around the Piazza Grande: Duomo of 1600 (paintings and decorated ceiling); ); Loggia della Gran Guardia and Loggia dei mercanti; Palazzo del Provveditore generale; Palazzo del Monte di pietà; Palazzo del Governatore delle armi;
- at South: Caserma Montezemolo; Polveriera napoleonica (exhibitions);
- at North-West: from the centre, Civico museo storico; Caserma Montesanto (exhibitions).
  You can read the history of Palmanova in the Civico Museo Storico which conserve documents, paintings, sculptures, objects, photographies, craft and artistic works of its life before with the Serenissima (1593-1798), later with Austria (1798-1805 and 1814-1866), then with France (1805-1814) and in the end with Italy (from 1866). The Museum is open from tuesday to sunday 10-12.00) (€ 2/1,5). Tel./fax.0432-929106   Questo indirizzo e-mail è protetto dallo spam bot. Abilita Javascript per vederlo.

Palmanova fortress

  Positively more impressive are the town military works which constitute its external structure (between the internal circular perimeter 3 km measuring and the external one of 6 km): a 500 metres large belt around the whole town without interruption (the three entrance roads excepted) with three concentric defensive lines.
  In the nearby drawing, the representation (with exact proportions) of the three defensive lines:
- (dark sky blue colour) the beginning line including the arrow-shaped bulwarks (with all internal and at the back fortifications, below described) and the moat;
- (medium sky blue colour) line of the ravelins, sixty years later built close to moat because of increasing range of the guns;
- (clear sky blue colour) line of the lunettes carried out at the end of 1800 by Napoleon, always to face up to new fighting requirements.

 These three lines are the main attractions of Palmanova and you can visit them by two ways:
- an whole circuit around the town in circles gradually wider, obviously with different military works (low moat circuit km 4 / high ravelins circuit km 4,5 / low-high mixed circuit km 6)
- a detailed visit to all works only in one point of the fortress star (these works, shown in the below drawn map, are equal to all ones of the eight points): this visit is possible (and well organized with paths and notice boards: walking time 1 hour and half) in the star point just over the Cividale Gate, that you can reach near the entrance of the Military Museum.
  To not forget anyhow the three gates ( with drawbridge wheel, guard post and different fronts): Porta Udine with hanging waterworks at North-West / Porta Cividale at North-East / Porta Aquileia at South.
  In the below drawn map are indicated kind and location of the various defensive works: A – Gate, B – Curtain-wall with two Cavaliers, C – Bulwark with ramp of sortie, D – Curtain-wall, E – Moat, F – Ravelin, G - Lunette The route includes the visit to a part of the large grid of various sized tunnels and ramps connecting all the positions (some ones, ‘poterne’, are fast practicable by a whole mounted squadron).

  In the Cividale Gate (which is the starting point of the route to the standard defensive works) is located the interesting Museo Storico Militare which ranges from the town foundation to the our days, showing small and heavy weapons, uniforms, models, dioramas and displays of the venetian, napoleonic, austrian and italian periods 
  Open: monday 9-12/13.45-16.00, tuesday, wednesday, thursday only on booking; friday and saturday and public holidays (the principal ones excepted) 9-12.00. Visits in other times for groups. . Entry free. Info: tel.0432-928175.
 The armours and the military manoeuvres of various ages can be live seen every year in the first weekend of September in a great Historical recalling in the main square of the town.

   
Touristic informations: Ufficio Turistico Palmanova., borgo Udine 4, tel.0432-924815 10-12.00/15-17.00 every day Questo indirizzo e-mail è protetto dallo spam bot. Abilita Javascript per vederlo.

If you want to know the most common type of ancient friulian stone houses, we suggest to visit the little village of Clauiano (3,5 km at North-East of Porta Cividale, towards Manzano) one of 'The most beautiful villages of Italia', with several country houses and manors of 1600-1800 along the two sides of the main street.


Where to stay for sleeping in Palmanova and countryside

Holiday farm MULINO DELLE TOLLE**°° of Bertossi G. & C., Bagnaria Arsa 33050 UD, loc. Casabianca via Julia 1 Ss352 (toward Cervignano), tel. 0432-924723 Fax.-928113 http://www.mulinodelletolle.it/ / Accommodation in 10 bed-rooms with 2-3-4 beds, all comfort, ***FVG: always open / Hot cooking and direct Sale of wines: from thursday to sunday (23 December-25 January closed)  (see map)


Recommended typical restaurants in Palmanova and countryside

Palmanova (centre):

Osteria with hot cooking AL CAPPELLO of Eleonora e Nausicaa, Palmanova 33057 UD, Borgo Udine 44, tel.388-6451424  www.alcappello.it  / Typical friulian place for a coffee, cold cuts with a glass of good wine or a full meal (from the first courses, also with sea-food, to the traditional second courses) / Friulian best wines and  craftmade local and foreign beers / Open: 7.30 (saturday 8.00)-15/17-21.00; sunday closed  

Bagnaria-ss 352 (3 km at South of Porta Aquileia)

Holiday farm MULINO DELLE TOLLE**°° of Bertossi G. & C., Bagnaria Arsa 33050 UD, loc. Casabianca via Julia 1 Ss352 (toward Cervignano), tel. 0432-924723 Fax.-928113 http://www.mulinodelletolle.it/ / Hot cooking: typical and creative dishes all with meats of own breeding chain / Open: 10-14.30/16.30-23 from thursday to sunday / Sale of typical wines / Touristic accommodation in bedrooms  (see map)

Ontagnano (3 km at West of Porta Aquileia):

Trattoria A l’ARMONICHE**°°, Gonars 33050 UD, loc. Ontagnano piazza C.Battisti 13, tel. 0432-929528 / Typical friulian Osteria with rural furniture and historical artifacts; rooms also for groups / We serve all typical dishes, abundant and cheap according to our tradition / At noon wednesday and thursday closed (see map)

Ontagnano (3,5 km at North-East of Cividale Gate):

Holiday farm BORGO CLAUDIUSof Bosco family, Trivignano Udinese 33050 UD, Loc. Clauiano Borgo San Martino 15, tel./fax.0432-999060 333-7974039 www.borgoclaudius.it / Cold refreshment with Frico and polenta, Cooked ham and horse radish, local Cheese and homemade Cured pork meat, In oil vegetables and Wines / Direct sale of Wines by measure, in b.i.b., in bottle / Open tuesday 17-21.00, from wednesday to sunday 10-14.00/17.21.00 (see map)

Gris of Bicinicco (6 km at West of Porta Aquileia):

Holiday farm SERAFINI*°°°*°°° Carletto, BICINICCO 33050 UD, loc. Gris via Gonars 36 (Ss for Codroipo), tel. 340-9880448  329-2186408  Questo indirizzo e-mail è protetto dallo spam bot. Abilita Javascript per vederlo.   (see File) / Cold and hot (on reservation) cooking / Sell of wines by measure, in bag-in-box and in bottle / Guided tastings for groups / Open from monday to saturday 10-13.00/16-21.00 (thursady and sunday evening, September closed)


Typical what to buy in Palmanova and countryside

MULINO DELLE TOLLE**°° of Bertossi G. & C., Bagnaria Arsa 33050 UD, loc. Casabianca via Julia 1 Ss352 (toward Cervignano), tel. 0432-924723 Fax.-928113 http://www.mulinodelletolle.it/ / Direct sale of Doc Friuli-Aquileia and normal wines; speciality: Palmade white and Sabellius red grape blend; Guided tastings for groups / Accommodation ever open; Cooking open from thursday to sunday; 23 December-25 January closed.

Winery BOSCO - BORGO CLAUDIUS***°, Trivignano Udinese 33050 UD, Loc. Clauiano Borgo San Martino 15, tel./fax.0432-999060 333-7974039 www.borgoclaudius.it/ Own production and direct sale in bottle, b.i.b. an by measure of 4 White, 5 Red and 2 Sparkling Wines / Open from tuesday to sunday 10-14.00/17.21.00 / Holiday farm freshment (see map)

SERAFINI*°°°,BICINICCO 33050 UD, loc. Gris via Gonars 36 (from Ss 252 for Codroipo), tel.340-9880448  329-2186408  Questo indirizzo e-mail è protetto dallo spam bot. Abilita Javascript per vederlo. / From the Grave Red Soil 3 White and 2 Red typical wines, Rosato from Merlot, Spumante extra dry, raisin Merlot / Sale of wine by measure, in bag-in-box and in bottles; apple juice / Guided tastings for groups / Cold and hot (on booking) cooking/ Open:10-13.00/16-20.00 (thursday and sunday afternoon, September closed) (see File)

NOTA BENE
 
  Palmanova is an unique specimen in the world of fortress-town with the shape of star, the first in the history still complete (the venetian Nicosia has been the first in 1567 but now the bulwarks are in large parte ruined), the more complex (9 points and 3 defensive lines, when Nicosia had 11 points but only 1 defensive line) and the largest (6 km perimeter and 2000 inhabitants).
  In Italy like Palmanova we have only two little fortress: Belvedere in Firenze (5 points) and one in Alessandria (6 points).
  In Europe the more similar for largeness is the little town of Coevorden in Holland (5 points but the walls in some parts have been destroyed). In the same country there are also the small but wery well-kept fortified village of Naarden (6 points) and the Bourtange fortress (5 points, one of it double).
  Also similar to Palmanova as number of points (7 but irregular in part) and of inhabitants (400), is the fortified village of Alba Julia in Romania, but with only 2 km of perimeter. In Romania there is also the stronghold of Arad, with 6 points and 3 defensive lines but mostly in packed earth built.
  In Denmark there is star-shaper the Kastellet in Copenaghen (5 points but irregular) and the big arch of 1/4 circle with 6 points around the town of Fredericia on the sea coast.
  Enough similar to Palmanova is also in France the fortified village (2 lines) of Neuf Brisach, which but looks, because of the small bulwarks, like a simple octagon rather than a star.
  In Spain Pamplona was a time completely surrounded by circular walls star-shaped but today it conserves only a little part of it with a small fortress with 5 points, as the town of Jaca.

 

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